Retracing Bulova History.
The Bulova Corporation was founded in 1875 by Czech immigrant Joseph Bulova in a small premises on Maiden Lane, New York City.
By 1911, Joseph Bulova had set up manufacturing to build high quality boudoir clocks, table clocks and pocket watches and by the following year (1912) Joseph Bulova was able to establish his first dedicated Watch manufacturing and assembly plant in Bienne, Switzerland, building only quality fully jeweled movements.
'At about the time of the First World War, there were many European watch manufacturers that said that the wearing of a watch on the wrist would never be a popular alternative to the pocket watch. Joseph Bulova, creating a pioneering spirit that was to become the 'culture' of Bulova, started to experiment with compact spring and balance wheel timepieces that could withstand the impacts and shocks of being worn on the wrist. Out of only a handful of manufacturers of the day, Bulova introduced its first line of fully jeweled men's wristwatches in 1919'
So, where are these 'Bulova Watches' Dating from 1911 to 1921 You may ask?
The clues are right before Us.
The first clue was recently discoverd in an ad which appeared in a 1922 Cosmopolitan Magazine.
* Note: the ad reads:
J. Bulova Co. Fifth Avenue at 36th Street. New York
Makers of the famous HUDSON MAXIM and RUBAIYAT Watches.
The image appears to be Copyrighted 1920 or 1921 and there is no mention of Bulova Watch Co in fact to the contary, the ad reads J. Bulova Co.
In 1917 a Patent was issued to the J. Bulova Co.
*Note: there is no notation of when this Patent was applied for or when the Name 'Rubaiyat' was first used by the J. Bulova Co
Enter into the picture this piece:
The Watch shown above is a First World War era (WWI 1914 - 1918) Gent's wrist Watch, correctly Jeweled (7) for Military issue at the time, manufactured in Switzerland, signed on both Case and Movement Rubaiyat W. Co. in the very same fashion, identically even, to early movements signed Bulova W. Co., which appear around 1921. Also please note the Rubaiyat signature on the Movement rolls the same way depicted in the Patent issued to J. Bulova Co.
What does this mean?
It is My contention that this Rubaiyat W Co. signed piece is the early work of Joseph Bulova manufactured while operating as the J. Bulova Co. pre Bulova Watch Company and the reason We do not see any 'Bulova Watches' pre Dating the early 1920's is that they do not exist. They do, only during the Decade of 1911-1921 Mr Joseph Bulova of the J. Bulova Co was manufacturing His famous Watches from the facility in Bienne, Switzerland under the Names of 'Rubaiyat' and 'Maxim' as indicated by the early 1920's ad.
This contention would also help explain early 1920's Watches which are American Standard Cased Bulova signed Movements with Maxim, Rubaiyat or nothing at all printed on their Dials, as J. Bulova Co grew and morphed into Bulova Watch Company, casing and timing Watches downstairs from the newly constructed Bulova observatory on Fifth Avenue, New York.
Many thanks to Mr Stephen Oilman, owner/admin of MyBulova.com for allowing the presentation of this information on site and to fellow MyBulova members who take time to read, evaluate, enjoy or critique.
Fifth Avenue Restorations.
No criticisms from me. A very well thought out and presented piece, Mark.
I totally go with this, as, if granted the trademark name in 1917, when did he actually apply? In all probability it wasn't awarded immediately, and could have had to wait for several years, but in the meantime carried on making watches with this name.
So is it fair to say that both the Hudsin Maxim and Lady Maxim are also early Bulova made watches?
I've always contended that the answer is 'yes'.
This is a great find and I hope something that we can expand on in the future with more adverts from this era.
I have another 1922 advert heading my way that also states the compnay name of J Bulova Company and not Bulova Watch Company. So it would appear that they started to trade under the BWC name either in late 1922 or 1923 as we have dated 1923 adverts using the Bulova Watch Company name.
This name change I think explains a lot about that transitional period we see in how Bulova labelled their very early watches.
Nice work Mark!
"So is it fair to say that both the Hudsin Maxim and Lady Maxim are also early Bulova made watches?"
There was a Watch named the 'Hudson Maxim' which is depicted at a J. Bulova Co. display booth at a convention. The image is from a Jewelers circular Dated 1921.
Let Me toss this one out there, what if the 1922 Cosmopolitan ad were to read:
"Makers of the famous Hudson, Maxim and Rubaiyat Watches".
There was a Hudson Watch Co:
Swiss Movement signed Hudson W. Co.
Could the 'Hudson Maxim' have been a conglomeration of the Hudson and Maxim Watch Companies? More Avenues to explore....
Undoubtably the 'Rubaiyat W Co' Watch shown in the OP was manufactured by J. Bulova Co. an early Bulova Watch.
I want to get this in the record....
Note how the RUBAIYAT signature patented by Joseph Bulova rolls, almost like a Wave.
On April 14, 1912 The R.M.S. Titanic struck an iceburg and sank in the Atlantic Ocean - 'The luxury liner was carrying several works of art. Among the most famous was "The Rubaiyat," a compilation of poems written by Persian astronomer and mathematician Omar Khayyam in the 11th Century. The copy of the book had a binding that included more than 1,000 gem stones'.
In reply to ecstatic Reverand! Thank You by FifthAvenueRes…
Evidence of a 1917 Rubaiyat watch. Oldest in the database and I think on the web.
Nice work Mark!
We need to be keeping an eye out for early Hudson, Rubaiyat & Maxim watch ad's/info, there may be more clues to be found!
I have seen some early J. Bulova Co. ad's, but the only rings were featured.
Rule #1 in business is start small and build up...looks like old Joe followed the rule book...
The WW1 Medal belonged to My Grandfather and was issued to British Soldiers for Service.
The Rubaiyat is shown as found.
It's not clear if the 1922 Cosmopolitan ad is indicating the Hudson and the Maxim were 2 Companies but indications point in that direction.
Here's a section of August - October 1921 edition of "The Jewelers' Circular" Mark cites above. A single quarterly publication consolidating the "American Horological Journal", "The Jewelers Weekly", and "The Jewelers Review". They were perhaps three individual publications, of which parts appeared in the Circular? As one reads through the September 21st part of the publication, it highlights the 16th Convention of "The American National Retail Jewelers Association", taking place on the 13th - 16th of September 1921 in Buffalo, New York. One article shows exhibits of various manufacturers at this convention, including J. Bulova Co. The intro to the Bulova section starts "Standardized imported watches were to be seen at the booth of the J. Bulova Co of New York. The Hudson-Maxim watch was featured at this booth, as was also the Rubaiyat watch". A couple more short sentences appear to be about J. Bulova Co., then the next paragraph referrers to the Bulova-Henshel Co. At bottom, a picture of the J. Bulova Co booth, along with the exhibit of the Bulova, Henskel Co. (note the spelling/typo? of Henskel in the graphic title)
Two people are mentioned in the J. Bulova Co. ppg; Ballard S. Epstein and A. Lindner
Three people are mentioned in the Bulova-Henshel ppg: Harry Henshel, M.M. Kolish and L.S. Shoen.
This entire publication is available for free download as a Google Book. It's good reading.
Two pictures of Joseph Bulova - in 1877, a couple years after founding J. Bulova In New York City, and as an older man at the bench.
oh and here's a picture of said Hudson-Maxim watch that Nova posted in the Lady Maxim thread (one of my favorites)
Mr and Mrs Maxim.
Fact. Bulova loved associating famous people with their watches.They have been innovative marketers from the early days. This is what set them apart from other watch companies.
I'm still on the fence. I want to believe that in the early days (pre 1921) Bulova were starting out their wrist and pocket watch business by promoting watches baring celebrity names rather than their own, which at that time may not have been well know in the watch industry. The ealiest advert he have is 1922 so we may never know how they started advertising their watchs pre this period.
Its is my theory that they where getting blank movements from the Swiss, stampinng them Bulova, then using 3rd party casing companies and marketing then the best way they could.
Hudson Maxim was extremely well known at this time so why not use his name to market a watch. It wouldn't be the first time Bulova has done this. What would be nice is some confirmation that Hudson has a connection with Bulova. Another thing we also see time and time again is the release of a Ms version...often called 'Lady' something. Again history has repeated itself time and time again with Bulova.
In the discussion regarding the 'LADY MAXIM' on site http://www.mybulova.com/watches/1924-lady-maxim-2458 I'd mentioned finding information indicating 'MAXIM' was an independant Watch making Company, so the MAXIM Company did exist.
The HUDSON W. Co also existed.
Most definately J. Bulova Co manufactured the 'HUDSON MAXIM'.
In reply to In the discussion regarding by FifthAvenueRes…
Looks like they were responsible the the entire line of Bulova Hudson Maxim watches including ladies versions (pre Lady Maxim).
This May 27, 1921 newspaper adverts shows a full line of both pocket and ladies watches all branded 'Hudson Maxim'.
What made me smile is the reference to Mr A. Bulova :-)
"Mr. A. Bulova, the maker of these highest grade watches, fianlly consented to come to Indianapolis during this HUDSON MAXIM week. He will be at my store in person to demonstrate the perfect workings of the mechanism of this wonderful watch."
The advert also states:
"A wonderful assortment of ladies' watches of many kinds are included in the HUDSON MAXIM watches in this introductory sale."
Click image to see larger version.
Bobbee posted another version of this a few years back, but that didn't mention Bulova by name, only as 'a representative of the factory'. This adverts finally confirms that Bulova owned and made the entire HUDSON MAXIM line of watches.
In reply to In the discussion regarding by FifthAvenueRes…
I'd say that the 1922 advert is referring to 'Hudson Maxim' as a single entity as it would appear the advert has some relation to the article show above that mentions:
The intro to the Bulova section starts "Standardized imported watches were to be seen at the booth of the J. Bulova Co of New York. The Hudson-Maxim watch was featured at this booth, as was also the Rubaiyat watch"
A curious thing. The same entry I have for the Swiss patent for Rubaiyat mentions a US registration for 1942. It could be that the Rubaiyat watches were sold only in Europe prior to 1942. Also, 1942 is a bit late to be using the Rubaiyat name in the US, are there even any examples of this?
Also, I have posted this elsewhere, but I will include it here to kind of put the manufacturing process into perpective:
Bulova owned the factory(s) in Switzerland that manufactured ebauches for their watches. An ebauche is a raw movt, and can be modified to a particular finished design.
The US factory made plates, dials, and escapements that were fitted to these, and other ebauches, which Bulova purchased from various leading ebauche manufactures, like ETA, FHF, Felsa, A.Schild, Aurore-Villeret, Sonceboz, Glycine, Peseux, Unitas, FEF (Fleurier), Le Phare, Junghans (alarm), Gruen, Venus, Michel, Liengme, Recta, and possibly others. The ebauches from Gruen were of the famed Aegler company, jointly owned by Rolex, Gruen and Aegler.
In 1930, Bulova was manufacturing components, that is, plates, dials and escapements in the US at their factory. By about 1940, Bulova was manufacturing complete watches, and by the early 1950s, they were producing over a million watches per year, approximately half being imported Swiss, and half Domestic (US). It seems the watches were always cased and assembled in the US. The cases, as we know, were sourced from various casemakers.
So Bulova did indeed use US made in-house movts as well as Swiss in-house movts, but these are in the minority. Keep in mind, a lot of major compnanies like Rolex, Breitling, and Panerai only started producing their own in house calibres relatively recently. Panerai, for example, once famously used a Rolex movt in their watches, but it was sourced by Rolex from Cortebert.
I'm finding the name Maxim trademarked by Bulova, but there are other Maxim Watches (including by Waltham) and also Hudson Watch Co.'s not attributable to Bulova, they are separate companies owned by others. I'm coming up blank for Hudson-Maxim.
edit: I see that Hudson Maxim was the inventor of the explosive Maximite, and if this watch is named after him, I'm guessing it is a model name, rather than a Company Bulova may have owned or run.
I'll add this for clarification of information in the original post:
"Bulova was founded and incorporated as the J. Bulova Company in 1875 by Joseph Bulova Joseph Bulova (1851 - November 18, 1935). It was reincorporated under the name Bulova Watch Company in 1923"
That ties in perfectly with my earlier comment above regarding the cross over in vintage adverts from J Bulova Company to Bulova Watch Company.
So now we have evidence that the Bulova Watch Company did not start trading under this name until 1923.
1922, 23 and 24 seem to be the years when Bulova really started to get their act together and become a driving force in the watch market.
After some exhaustive digging, I am convinced that the Hudson Maxim watch is named after Hudson Maxim.
I know, Duh.
I find no evidence of a Bulova related Maxim Watch Co, nor a Hudson Watch Co relating to Bulova either. Hudson Maxim was from a famous family, and a US super-patriot, a much-loved inventor and media savvy personality. He invented Maximite, an explosive, and also smokeless powder. (As a former gunsmith, I should have remembered that) His brother Hiram Stevens Maxim invented the Maxim gun, and his nephew Hiram Percy Maxim invented the Maxim silencer.
There were several Hudson Watch Co's in Europe prior to the 20th century and up to the 1930's. None were in any way related to Bulova. Hudson was a model name used by others, also, as was Maxim.
In 1951 Ardie Bulova presented a Sundial to the Botanical Gardens in Queens NY.
If I may quote from it - "the best is yet to be"
This info according to Mikrolisk - The horological trade mark index:
Bulova Watch Company, Inc / J. Bulova & Cie
Biel, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Schweiz; New York, USA.
Biel is the German reference to Bienne, Bienne being the French. - Schweiz translates to Switzerland
No Date is given although I do find it interesting that J. Bulova Co. Bienne, Switzerland is noted. The Date of this MAXIM trademark is a key piece of information.
Ok this new advert cements two very topically points that have been discussed here on myBulova.com over the last year or so.
- Did Bulova make the Lady Maxim?
- Did Bulova make early Bulova watches without 'Bulova' on the dial?
The answer to both questions is a definitive "YES"
December 16, 1922 Bulova Watch Advert - 'The Saturday Evening Post
A liitle more about the origins of J. Bulova Co.
I stumbled across this image:
The image is Artist John Mackie Falconers' rendition of what was 55-59 Maiden Ln. New York. 57 Maiden Lane being the address of Joseph Bulova in 1875.
The rectangular sign which is centrally located in the image next to the Road states '59 Toys', a Toy shop which would make 55-57 Maiden Lane on the left the property of J. Rucklass -Tailor.
The painting is Dated 1851
This locale is at the Corner of Maiden Lane and Williams St. where the Federal Reserve building now stands.
The origins of Maiden Lane.
"Where Maiden Lane is there was once a narrow stream or spring water, which flowed from about the present Nassau Street. Women went there to wash their clothing, so that it came to be called the Virgin's Path, and from that the Maiden's Lane."
above excerpt from the book: Nooks and Corners of Old New York by Charles Hemstreet.
Someone else was there first!http://www.google.co.uk/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=57+maiden+lane+NY+&source=web&cd=2&cad=rja&ved=0CCUQFjAB&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nytimes.com%2F1992%2F09%2F19%2Fopinion%2Fl-maiden-lane-recalls-jefferson-as-well-394792.html&ei=Ud5pUMKwBcaxhAflroH4DA&usg=AFQjCNHgfSfgzZH8RPMgPUaF4XsuNzljqA
Mr. T. Jefferson Esq. from June 2nd. 1790 until Sept. 1st. same year.
Very true Bob.
"His house, located at 57 Maiden Lane, was rented from Robert and Peter Bruce, grocers at 3 Front Street, "for 100 pounds per year." St. John de Crevecoeur wrote that Jefferson "lived in a mean house in Maiden Lane and not approving much of the stiff style and etiquette of New York he gave up all his time to the establishment of his new department, foreign affairs, and home."To his home he added a multi-windowed gallery in the back for his papers, books, and plants. A plaque erected in 1921 by the Home Insurance Company commemorates Jefferson's place of residence in the former capital."
edit: (although the plaque itself states 1929)
So Bulova was "busy" early on. There are several "Bulova Company Reports" from the early 1920"s which are digitized by various US research Library reserve collections. Some of these reports can be found via Google Books. While the actual repots to shareholders, company reports, etc are completely digitized, only "snippets" of the reports come up via Google Books. In most examples, the inside cover is visible, along with then name of the library reserve section which has the full digitized version. A major research library digitized pubs in it's reserve collection to make available to other libraries and the public, so I'm contacting the various library reserve folks to find out how to gain access to the entire publications. Most likely through the modern/digital interlibrary loan process.
Also found a J Bulova ad from 1897 in a Jewelers Circular PDF.
And a snippet of a company report from 1931 (published in mid 1932 as their fiscal year ended at the end of March) . I see American Standard Watch Case Co, along with American Standard Watch Co, (and many others) were subsidiary's of Bulova. The early 1920's reports may have info on Rubaiyat Watch Co, Hudson-Maxim, if they were owned by "Bulova". Several other subsidiaries are listed, but not coming up as a snippet view. Most of these subsidiaries were wholly owned by Bulova Watch Co after 1923 and J Bulova before- if we can just get the entire pub, we can see who/what Bulova "owned".
One can join in the search here:
There's a couple Rubaiyat patent comments above. One registered March 2, 1943- which must have been a reapplication for the original (below), as the application date is Oct 1942- apx 25 years after the original patent below.
The Jewelers' Circular Weekly March 14, 1917
In reply to J. Bulova Co. moves from 2 by mybulova_admin
Fifth Ave at 36th St mentioned in the snippet above is the location of the 1905 Gorham building (392 Fifth Ave?).
The address I have for the Bulova Observatory is 580 Fifth Ave on what's known today as the World Diamond Tower http://www.580worlddiamondtower.com/history.htm formerly known as the Empire Trust Company Building, which was the former Ampico Towers.
The building at 580 Fifh Ave is showing as competed in 1927. http://www.skyscrapercenter.com/new-york-city/empire-trust-company-buil…
and 1929 http://www.emporis.com/building/empiretrustcompanybuilding-newyorkcity-…
The World Diamond Tower link gives a building permit issuance Date of 1927.
If this information is correct the Bulova Observatory could not have been in operation until 1929 at the earliest, which the database ads reflect. http://www.mybulova.com/sites/default/files/vintage_ads/bulova%20ad%201…
One to watch for:
Everett Watch Co
No indication of a Date but typically when J. Bulova & Cie. is mentioned it's an older record.
image above is of an 'Everett Watch Co. New York' Swiss Pocket Watch - 7 Jewels.
I cannot get the image of the movement to load
* this description from an Everett Watch Co pocket Watch recently auctioned:
"Having a circular dial, with Roman numeral chapters, subsidiary seconds dial, 7 jewel stem wind manual movement, having 2 adjustments, concealed within a yellow gold-filled hunting case #2138690. Signed on movement Factory S, Switzerland and on dial Everett Watch Co., New York. Movement size approximately 0".
No images - interestingly the Movement was signed 'Factory S.'
I hadn't noticed this before, but there are a few Bulova model names that exist that are both Bulova AND Westfield. ie: Air King, Air Queen, American Boy, American Girl, Sky King, Trojan, Miss Liberty, etc. I'm wondering if the cases are identical, and swapping has occurred.
There is a lot of info at Mikrolisk, including what appears to be all of the Bulova Model name patents.
It looks like Bulova patented/trademarked many model names and lots of stuff under different company names too. Many are non-USA registered. Many don't have dates associated w/ the info for each entry. I think they just registered things to secure the names/trademarks, and didn't necessarily "do anything" with some of them short of this.
I don't think cases btwn Bulova and Westfield were identical or even "close", but Bulova wanted some options, and to keep others from marketing a competing product?
In reply to Dial signed 'HUDSON MAXIM' by FifthAvenueRes…